Shoulder Joint

The shoulder complex is an intricate kinetic mechanism comprising bone, joint, and soft tissue structures. This allows the upper limb (arm) to position itself inside almost the entire range of a sphere. The shoulder joint by itself is known as the glenohumeral joint – a ball and socket joint between the scapula and the humerus. This is the most mobile joint in the human body. The large range of motion is a result of our upright posture and is necessary for performing any kind of manual labor. This high mobility comes at a cost however – susceptibility to trauma. As with any joint, this one also has passive and active stabilizers. Yet they prove ineffective in the face of medium- and high-energy trauma, as well as repetitive microtrauma, i.e. repetitive strain injuries.